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I. Identifying Leadership

A. What is it?

1. Each student will write their own definition of leadership.

2. Definitions will be shared and discussed in small groups.

a. Each group will share their definition of leadership.

3. Four definitions

a. Personality

b. Persuasion

c. Power relationship

d. Initiator of action


B. Three methods of leadership

1. Autocratic

2. Laissez Faire

3. Democratic


C. Identify your leadership style.

1. Past experiences

2. What are your strengths, talents, or abilities?

3. Write a short biography


II. Personal Characteristics of Effective Leaders

A. Self-Confidence

1. Possess more of it

2. Confident in their ability to handle responsibilities

3. Confident in their ability to handle problems

4. Confident in his/her decision making ability


B. Risk Taker

1. Willing to admit mistakes

2. Willing to take risks which might result in mistakes

3. Willing to make decisions which might occasionally be unpopular


C. Well Adjusted

1. Feel secure in themselves as people

2. Able to take criticism and advice

3. Openly admits mistakes

4. Secure enough to accept others' ideas and opinions without feeling threatened

5. Able to remain calm under pressure

6. Able to delegate work to members of the group


D. Assertive

1. Able to command the group when the need arises

2. Able to be less aggressive and more democratic when needed

3. Understands group dynamics


E. Responsible

1. Reliable and can be counted on to do what they have promised to do

2. The group depends on the leader to carry out certain responsibilities

3. Consistently responsible and reliable


F. Empathetic

1. Tends to possess more interpersonal sensitivity than non-leaders

2. See the members of the group as individuals with feelings and goals

3. Aware of what individuals are doing and how they are feeling

4. Tends to internalize the feelings of the group.


G. Extroverted

1. Tends to be more sociable, talkative, outgoing, and friendlier

2. Can be too extroverted (talks too much)


III. Skills for Effective Leadership

A. Ability to promote free interaction among all members


B. Ability to promote openness

1. Members express their

a. opinions

b. ideas

c. criticism

2. Members influence goals and activities of the group


C. Ability to refrain from harsh criticism


D. Ability to be fair with all deliberations, decisions, and actions


E. Ability to make decisions based on the views of the majority of the group

1. These decisions may be contrary to the leaders own choice


F. Ability to display decisiveness while guiding the group.


G. Ability to protect the rights of minority sub groups

1. Individuals and subgroups are encouraged to assert their own views


H. Ability to help all group members to achieve their personal goals


IV. Communication Skills for Effective Leadership

A. Communication is "the sending and receiving of messages"

1. Clarification of the message is important

2. Nonverbal cues are important to good communication

3. Lack of communication is the cause of many problems and misunderstandings


B. Giving directions

1. Wait for the attention of everyone in the group

2. Repetition may be necessary

3. Give directions step by step

4. Keep directions short

5. Allow time for listeners to clarify any details

6. Summarize the instructions for the group


C. Listening skills

1. Reasons people do not listen

a. Thinking about what the speaker just said

b. Thinking about how to reply to the speaker

c. Becoming passive listeners

d. Hearing difficulties

e. Their minds are on an entirely different subject

f. Their attitude is affecting their ability to listen

g. They are in disagreement with the speaker

2. Methods to improve your listening skills

a. Look at the person speaking

b. Acknowledge you are listening to the speaker

c. Ask questions of the speaker

d. Reflect on what the speaker has said by stating; "What you're saying is..."

e. Ask them to repeat what they just said


D. Nonverbal communication

1. Body language is constantly communicating to people

a. Facial expressions

b. Hands, arms, and shoulders

c. The walk, the stand, or the sit

d. Caution - Some body language may be misleading


E. Empathy for others

1. Understanding their personal situations

F. General Communication Rules

1. Review handout "General Communication Rules"

2. Group activity


V. The Dynamics of the Group's Individuals

A. Why do we join groups?

1. Security

2. New experiences

3. Recognition

4. Shared interests and goals


B. Unique contributions of group members

1. Unique interests, drives and motivations

2. Unique expectations and aspirations

3. Unique values, attitudes, habits, feelings, and beliefs

4. Unique premonitions, frustrations, inhibitions and fears

5. Unique experiences


C. Personal qualities of a group member

1. A member should be loyal and supportive of the group

2. A member should be willing to work for the organization

3. A member should have energy and enthusiasm

4. A member should be reliable

5. A member should be willing to cooperate and compromise

6. A member should be honest

7. A member should be friendly and sensitive to the others' needs

8. A member should be dedicated to the goals of the group


D. Skills of a group member

1. A member should have good communication skills

a. Know how to say exactly what they mean

b. Organize and communicate their thoughts

c. Able to listen and evaluate

d. Be able to speak in public

2. A member should have good social skills

a. Remembering names

b. Knowing how to make introductions

c. Knowing proper etiquette

3. A member should know how to persuade people

a. Being able to convince others that the idea is good


E. Responsibilities of group members

1. Being willing to work on committees

2. Being willing to accept group assignments

3. Being willing to contribute to the group

4. Being willing to respect the rights of others


VI. Group Organization

A. Agenda

1. Consists of eight items

a. The beginning of the meeting

b. Reading the minutes of the previous meeting

c. Treasurer's report

d. Committee reports

e. Special Committees

f. Unfinished business

g. New business

h. Closing of the meeting


B. Sample Agenda


C. Planning a work activity

1. Determine the activity and its goal and purpose

2. Set the objectives

3. Develop the work plan

4. Develop a budget

5. Assign tasks

6. Develop a time line

7. Evaluate your success


C. Sample work plan


D. Program Planning

1. Review and evaluate previous program

2. Identify present needs of the group, its membership, and community

3. Prioritize the list of needs

4. Plan your programs to meet these needs

5. Plans should include entertainment, educational opportunities, community service, and adequate fund raising

6. The program plan should attempt to meet the unique needs of each member of the group

7. Program plans should be printed and given to all members

8. Meetings should be scheduled on a regular basis

9. Changes will occur as needed


VII. Committee Organization

A. Executive committee

1. Comprised of:

a. Officers

b. Standing committee chair-persons

c. Special committee chair-persons

d. Functions as an agenda committee


B. Standing committees

1. Named in the bylaws of the organization

2. Appointed by the president

3. Pre-determined responsibilities


C. Special committees

1. Appointed by the president

2. Serve until their task is completed

3. Comprised of highly interested members


D. Committee chair-person

1. Serves as leader of the committee

2. Co-worker on the committee

3. Schedules meetings

4. Prepares agendas

5. Agendas should be sent to all members before the meeting

6. Makes work assignments

7. Keeps executive committee informed of progress


VIII. Parliamentary Procedure

A. Principles of parliamentary procedure

1. Only one item of business is to be discussed at a time

2. Parliamentary procedure reflects the desires of the majority while protecting the rights of the minority

3. All members are entitled to full discussion on every motion

4. The rules govern precedence in introductions and handling of motions

5. All members have the right to know and understand all motions being considered before voting on them

6. Committees can be given the power to act on various projects but the final decision rests with the assembly



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